The skin is made up of three layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, each of which contributes to the full, strong and smooth skin that we are born with. The epidermis, which is the outer layer, protects the skin from environmental toxins with special cells called keratinocytes. Underneath the epidermis is the dermis layer, which contains connective tissue, including collagen, elastin and other proteins, that provide strength and flexibility to the skin. The subcutaneous tissue at the bottom layer is made up of fat cells that insulate the body, and is what makes the skin look full and plump.
Each of these layers is affected by aging, genetics and environmental factors, which can make the skin sag and look more wrinkled. The skin’s layers tend to thin as production of tissue slows down, making skin more susceptible to damage and changes because it lacks its previous support and fast-repair abilities. The result is thinner skin with visible lines and wrinkles that can no longer be filled in by collagen and fat cells.